Robert S. McNamara: Oral Histories

Oral Histories are a great way to observe an individual’s actual experiences and perceptions of the war. The interviews are conducted with people after the events have occurred, sometimes right after the event or many years later. Most of the oral histories below show a brief biography of the subject, interview length and a typed transcript. Click on the gramophone icon to listen to the interview on your computer or the PDF icon to read the transcript.

General

  • Interview with William Tilton (24 August 2000)
    • Item #: OH0004
    • Length: 5:57:28 hr/min/sec
    •  (USAF) William Tilton served with the United States Air Force in Vietnam and Thailand from 1966 to 1967. He served as a Forward Air Controller with the 19th TASS at Bien Hoa and 23rd TASS in Nakhon Phanom, Thailand, and as a KC-135 Tanker Crew Commander based out of Thailand. (open complete record
    • Link to Tilton Audio Link to Tilton Transcript
  • Interview with James Parks (8 August 2000)
    • Item #: OH0010
    • Length: 1:04:15 min/sec
    •  (USA) Jim Parks served with the United States Army in Vietnam from 1965 to 1966. He served with the 1st Infantry Division Band. Interview conducted by Stephen Maxner. (open complete record
    • Link to Parks Transcript Link to Parks Audio
  • Interview with Frederick Frick (08 January 1996)
    • Item #: OH0055
    • Length: 01:58:57 hr/min/sec
    •  (USN) Captain Frick was present aboard the USS Maddox during the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident. He served as a Lieutenant, Junior Grade and acted as Division Operations Officer. His duty station put Frick on the bridge, in CIC (Command Information Center) and the radio room. In his lengthy interview, Frick recounts his experience during the North Vietnamese attack on 2 August and the controversial ... (more
    • Link to Cpt. Frick Transcript Link to Cpt. Frick Audio
  • Interview with James McLeroy (3 October 2000)
    • Item #: OH0061
    • Length: 03:03:28 hr/min/sec
    •  (USA) James McLeroy served with the United States Army in Vietnam from 1967 to 1968. He served as an Infantry Officer with the 5th Special Forces Group. (open complete record
    • Link to McLeroy Audio Link to McLeroy Transcript
  • Interview with Michael Morea (25 January 2001)
    • Item #: OH0072
    • Length: 06:43:56 hr/min/sec
    •  (USAF) Mike Morea served with the United States Air Force in Vietnam from 1966 to 1967. He served as a Forward Air Controller (FAC) with the 19th TASS and with the ARVN Airborne Division stationed out of Tan Son Nhut. (open complete record
    • Link to Morea Audio Part 1 Link to Morea Audio Part 2 Link to Morea Transcript Part 1 Link to Morea Transcript Part 2
  • Interview with Sam Johnson (12 March 2001)
    • Item #: OH0086
    • Length: 01:41:23 min/sec
    •  (USAF) (POW) Congressman Sam Johnson served two tours with the USAF in Vietnam. During his first tour (1965-1966) he served at MACV headquarters in Saigon in the Emergency Action Center. During his second tour (1966-1973) he served in Ubon, Thailand, flying an F-4 on trail interdiction and bombing missions in Laos and North Vietnam. Congressman Johnson was shot down while flying over North Vietnam... (more
    • Link to Johnson Audio Link to Johnson Transcript
  • Interview with James Mulligan (13 March 2001)
    • Item #: OH0087
    • Length: 02:17:17 hr/min/sec
    •  (USN, POW) James Mulligan entered the United States Navy in 1944 at the age of seventeen. He eventually became a fixed wing aviator and flew A-1 Skyraiders and A-4 Skyhawks. In 1965, Captain Mulligan served with CAG9, 76th Squadron, onboard the USS Enterprise in the South China Sea. On March 20, 1966, while flying A-4 missions over North Vietnam, Captain Mulligan was shot down and captured. He rem... (more
    • Link to Mulligan Audio Link to Mulligan Transcript
  • Interview with Richard Duckworth (23 March 2000)
    • Item #: OH0099
    • Length: 4:53:33 hr/min/sec
    •  Richard Duckworth served with the United States Air Force in Vietnam from 1969 to 1971. Duckworth served as a pilot and aircraft commander with OPERATION RANCHHAND and flew missions out of Da Nang and Bien Hoa. He also conducted an econometric analytical study of the U.S. Air War in Vietnam. Interview conducted by Stephen Maxner. (open complete record
    • Link to Duckworth Transcript Link to Duckworth Audio
  • Interview with General Theodore Mataxis (31 March 2000)
    • Item #: OH0111
    • Length: 5:10:39 hr/min/sec
    •  (USA) The first pdf file of the interview listed below is the original version of the interview. The second pdf file is the narrator's rewritten transcript. (open complete record
    • Link to Mataxis original transcript Link to Mataxis (narrator's) rewritten transcript Link to Mataxis Audio
  • Interview with Richard Marks (27 August 2002)
    • Item #: OH0146
    • Length: 02:33:28 min/sec
    •  (USAF) Dick Marks served with the United States Air Force as a navigator on C-130 aircraft. He served two TDY (Temporary Duty) tours in 1965 with the 773rd Troop Carrier Squadron (TCS), 463rd Troop Carrier Wing, stationed out of Clark Airbase in the Philippines, flying missions throughout South Vietnam. From February 1966 to February1967, he flew missions throughout South Vietnam while serving wit... (more
    • Link to Marks Audio Link to Marks Transcript
  • Interview with Michael Mittelmann (7 May 2001)
    • Item #: OH0172
    • Length: 07:06:30 min/sec
    •  (USA) Dr. Michael Mittelmann was a physician in the U.S. Army Medical Corps from 1957-1967 and 1983-1995, both Active and Reserve duty. He served as an orthopedic surgeon in the 8th Field Hospital in Nha Trang, Republic of Vietnam, from March 1965 to March 1966. His positions included Chiefs of Orthopedic Surgery and Professional Services. Interview conducted by Stephen Maxner. (open complete record
    • Link to Mittlemann Audio Link to Mittlemann Transcript Part 1 Link to Mittlemann Transcript Part 2
  • Interview with Thomas Spencer
    • Item #: OH0190
    • Length: 06:05:04 min/sec
    •  (USA) Thomas Spencer served with the United States Army in Vietnam from 1967-1970. He served as an Infantry Commander and as an Instructor with MACV Advisory Team 97. He worked in Regional and Popular Forces in Kien Phong Province. Interview conducted by Stephen Maxner. (open complete record
    • Link to Spencer Audio Part 1 Link to Spencer Audio Part 2 Link to Spencer Transcript Part 1 Link to Spencer Transcript Part 2
  • Interview with Thomas Norris (2 October 2001)
    • Item #: OH0191
    • Length: 1:32:29 hr/min/sec
    •  Thomas Norris discusses his experiences as a prisoner of war from 1967-1973. During this time, Norris was held captive in numerous camps, most notably Hoa Lo (the Hanoi Hilton). (open complete record
    • Link to Norris Audio Link to Norris Transcript
  • Interview with George Thatcher (15 November 2001)
    • Item #: OH0196
    • Length: 1:52:14 hr/min/sec
    •  (USAF) Dr. George Thatcher was drated into the Air Force in 1951. In 1957 he entered OCS to go through pilot training and graduated in 1960. Dr. Thatcher became a B-52 pilot and from 1965 to 1966 he flew Arc Light missions out of Guam and into Vietnam. In 1969 Dr. Thatcher returned to Takhli Royal Thai Air Force Base in 1969 through 1970 to fly the Douglas Destroyer. Interview conducted by Jona... (more
    • Link to Thatcher Audio Link to Thatcher Transcript
  • Interview with Alan Osur (18 February 2002)
    • Item #: OH0210
    • Length: 03:21:51 hr/min/sec
    •  (USAF) Alan Osur served with the United States Air Force in Thailand from October 1966 to October 1967. He served as an Air Intelligence Officer with the 432nd Tactical Reconnaissance Wing in Udorn, Thailand. (open complete record
    • Link to Osur Audio Link to Osur Transcript
  • Interview with R. E. Dodson (27 March 1990)
    • Item #: OH0213
    • length not listed
    •  Captain R.E. Dodson (USN) discusses his experiences in the US Navy in South Vietnam, particularly the role of the Brown Water Navy in the Mekong Delta. Dodson served as an advisor to the South Vietnamese Navy in 1969. (open complete record
    • Link to Dodson Transcript
  • Interview with Michael Sweeney (14 November 2002)
    • Item #: OH0239
    • Length: 05:14:30 hr/min/sec
    •  (USMC) Michael L. Sweeney, originally from Denison, Texas, served in the U.S. Marine Corps from 1960 until 1980. Mike served in Vietnam from 1965 until 1969. From 1965 to1966, and again in 1967 after completing the Amphibious Warfare School at Quantico, Virginia, he was the Commanding Officer, Marine Detachment aboard the USS Hancock. In the spring and summer of 1968, he was CO, K Co., 3d Batta... (more
    • Link to Sweeney Audio Part 1 Link to Sweeney Audio Part 2 Link to Sweeney Transcript
  • Interview with Neal Creighton (11 November 2002)
    • Item #: OH0243
    • Length: 10:47:17 hr/min/sec
    •  (USA) General Neal Creighton shares his experiences going through West Point and his time serving in Europe and several Latin American countries. He then reflects on his time as an armor officer in Vietnam from 1966 to 1967. (open complete record
    • Link to Creighton Audio Link to Creighton Transcript
  • Interview with Dennis Sullivan
    • Item #: OH0261
    • Length: 02:15:13 min/sec
    •  (USN, USAF, CIA) Dennis B. Sullivan, origianally from Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin, served (at different times) in the U.S. Navy, U.S. Air Force, and Central Intelligence Agency from 1950 until 1982. Dennis attended the U.S. Naval Academy from 1946 until 1950 and joined the Air Force upon graduation. During the Vietnam War in 1967 and 1968, Dennis flew reconnaissance missions in the A12 out of Kad... (more
    • Link to Sullivan Audio Link to Sullivan Transcript
  • Interview with Kenneth Kruger
    • Item #: OH0270
    • Length: 02:21:13 min/sec
    •  (USAF) Kenneth S. Kruger, originally from Oakland, California served in the U.S. Air Force from 1958 until 1966. He first went to Southeast Asia TDY in 1964 with the 347th Troop Carrier Squadron, 516th Troop Carrier Wing, Tactical Air Command, stationed in Okinawa. From there, Ken flew missions into South Vietnam as Aircraft Loadmaster on a C130E. He went back to SE Asia TDY in 1965, also as Ai... (more
    • Link to Kruger Audio Link to Kruger Archive Edited Transcript Link to Kruger Rewritten Transcript
  • Interview with Allen Trott, Jr.
    • Item #: OH0272
    • length not listed
    •  (USAF) Allen L. "Buck" Trott, Jr., originally from Washington, D.C. served in the U.S. Air Force from 1953 until 1980 and retired a Colonel. Buck served briefly in the U.S. Coast Guard before completeing his B.A. at the University of Maryland. After graduation, he joined the Air Force in 1953 and was stationed at various places around the United States and Europe, including a number of years in ... (more
    • Link to Trott Audio Part 1 Link to Trott Audio Part 2 Link to TrottTranscript
  • Interview with Robert Fischer
    • Item #: OH0280
    • length not listed
    •  (USAF) Robert H. Fischer, originally from Abington, Pennsylvania, served in the U.S. Air Force from 1960 until 1969. Between 1962 and 1965, based out of Tachikawa, Japan, he flew cargo missions in the C-124 around Southeast Asia, including missions into the Republic of South Vietnam. From 1965 until 1967, he flew C-141s out of Dover AFB all over the world, including stops in South Vietnam. Bob... (more
    • Link to Fischer Audio Link to Fischer Transcript
  • Interview with Anthony Borra (25 March 2003)
    • Item #: OH0281
    • length not listed
    •  (USAF) Anthony G. Borra, originally from Queens, New York City, New York, served in the U.S. Air Force from 1962 until 1970. He spent 22 months in Southeast Asia as a C-130 pilot with the 772nd Tactical Airlift Squadron based in the Philippines (at both Mac Tan and Clark AFB). In country, Tony was based out of Saigon and Cam Ranh Bay with the 463rd Tactical Airlift Wing and flew over 1000 comba... (more
    • Link to Borra Audio Part 1 Link to Borra Audio Part 2 Link to Borra Audio Part 3 Link to Borra Transcript
  • Interview with Richard Hamilton
    • Item #: OH0288
    • length not listed
    •  (USAF) Richard E. Hamilton, originally from Portland, Oregon served in the U.S. Air Force from 1956 until 1959 and from 1962 until 1988. He also served in the California Air National Guard from 1959 until 1962. Dick first went to Southeast Asia in 1965 TDY from MacDill AFB with the 47th Tactical Fighter Squadron (TFS) and was stationed at Ubon RTAB. There he served as the Squadron Scheduling Of... (more
    • Link to Hamliton Audio Part 1 Link to Hamliton Audio Part 2 Link to Hamliton Transcript
  • Interview with Frances Hamilton (30 May 2003)
    • Item #: OH0306
    • Length: 1:36:26 hr/min/sec
    •  (Civilian) Frances Hamilton, originally from Ocala, Florida is the wife of former U.S. Air Force pilot Richard Hamilton. In this interview, Frances discusses, among other subjects, life at home during her husband's two tours in Southeast Asia in 1965 and 1970, the spousal support system at home, the relationship between the U.S. military and the spouses, and the atmosphere in the United States d... (more
    • Link to Hamilton Audio Link to Hamilton Transcript
  • Interview with James Wheeler, Jr. (11 July 2003)
    • Item #: OH0313
    • length not listed
    •  (USA) James P. Wheeler, Jr., originally from Nashville, Tennessee served in the U.S. Army from 1963 until 1984. Jim served two tours in South Vietnam. He first went to the RVN in March 1967 and served until March 1968 with the 2nd Battalion, 8th Infantry, 4th Infantry Division as a platoon leader. Jim went back to the RVN in July 1969 and served six months with 3rd Brigade, 4th ID and six mont... (more
    • Link to Wheeler Audio Part 1 Link to Wheeler Audio Part 2 Link to Wheeler Audio Part 3 Link to Wheeler Audio Part 4 Link to Wheeler Transcript
  • Interview with Raymond Merritt
    • Item #: OH0322
    • length not listed
    •  (USAF) Raymond J. Merritt, originally from Portland, Oregon served in the U.S. Naval Reserve from 1947 until 1950 and in the U.S. Air Force from 1950 until 1979. Ray went to Asia in 1964 assigned to the 67th Tactical Fighter Squadron, 18th Tactical Fighter Wing, at Kadena AB, Okinawa, Japan. From Okinawa, he rotated in and out of Korat AB, Thailand, from where he flew missions over North Vietna... (more
    • Link to Merritt Audio Part 1 Link to Merritt Audio Part 2 Link to Merritt Audio Part 3 Link to Merritt Transcript
  • Interview with Cecil Shrader (16 January 2004)
    • Item #: OH0332
    • Length: 4:44:32 hr/min/sec
    •  (USA) Cecil Shrader was born in West Virginia and was a 1958 graduate of the US Military Academy at West Point. Trained as an armored weapons specialist, Cecil held a field command with a tank company in Korea before going to Vietnam. He commanded an aeroweapons platoon of C Troop, 1/9 of the First Cavalry Division from July 1966 until May 1967, and he returned to Vietnam as Commanding Officer o... (more
    • Link to Shrader Audio Link to Shrader Transcript
  • Interview with Tom Esslinger (21 August 2003)
    • Item #: OH0333
    • Length: 5:23:15 hr/min/sec
    •  (USMC) John Thomas "Tom" Esslinger, originally from Ephrata, Pennsylvannia served in the U.S. Marine Corps from 1966 until 1970. Tom went to Vietnam in September 1967 and served with India Company and Mike Company, 3rd Battalion, 26th Marines, and operated out of Camp Evans. In December 1967, his unit was sent to Khe Sanh where it eventually occuppied Hill 881 South during the 77-day seige. Af... (more
    • Link to Esslinger Audio Part 1 Link to Esslinger Audio Part 2 Link to Esslinger Transcript
  • Interview with Michael Bradbury
    • Item #: OH0335
    • length not listed
    •  (USMC) Michael D. Bradbury, originally from San Francisco, California served in the U.S. Marine Corps from 1966 until 1969 and in the U.S. Air Force from 1971 until 1988. Mike served in South Vietnam in K Company, 3/26 Marines, 3rd Marine Division, from September 1967 until October 1968. He participated in operations around Camp Evans in the Cobi Tanh Tan Valley, in Hue and around Quang Tri Cit... (more
    • Link to Bradbury Audio Part 1 Link to Bradbury Audio Part 2 Link to Bradbury Audio Part 3 Link to Bradbury Transcript
  • Interview with Ronnie Lee Houston (22 January 2004)
    • Item #: OH0344
    • Length: 4:48:16 min/sec
    •  (USAF) Ronnie Lee Houston was born in 1944 in Ozona TX and attended Texas Tech University before entering the Air Force. He completed Officer Training School at Lackland AFB, TX, and Navigator Training at Mather AFB, CA, as well as specialized weapons systems training for F-4 aircraft at Davis Monthan AFB, AZ. Assigned to the 480th Tactical Fighter Squadron of the 37th (later the 12th) Tactical... (more
    • Link to Houston Audio Part 1 Link to Houston Audio Part 2 Link to Houston Transcript Part 1 Link to Houston Transcript Part 2
  • Interview with Edwin L. Oswald (01 April 2004)
    • Item #: OH0362
    • Length: 9:42:59 hr/min/sec
    •  (USN) Edwin L. ('Larry') Oswald was born in Savannah GA in 1945, and graduated from Benedictine High School there in 1963. Larry held a Navy ROTC scholarship at Rice University, and after graduating in 1967 he attended the Navy Supply Corps School at Athens GA. In March 1968 he was assigned to Naval Support Activity (NSA), Saigon, and then as Supply Officer on YRBM-16. He aided in the refitting... (more
    • Link to Oswald Audio Link to Oswald Transcript
  • Interview with Patricia A. Warner (28 June 2005)
    • Item #: OH0430
    • Length: 6:16:55 hr/min/sec
    •  In this interview Commander Patricia Warner describes her experiences as a Navy Nurse. Warner's career which spanned from the 1950s to the 1980's included a tour aboard the USS Sanctuary, a hospital ship based off the coast of Da Nang. (open complete record
    • Link to Warner Audio Link to Warner Transcript
  • Interview with William LeGro (23 June 2005)
    • Item #: OH0431
    • Length: 35:21:28 hr/min/sec
    •  In this interview Col. William E. LeGro describes his military career, which spanned from 1943 until 1977. Entering the military in 1943 as an enlisted soldier, LeGro served in the pacific duringWorld War II and left the military in 1945. In 1949, LeGro returned to the Army as an officer and retired with the rank of Colonel in 1977. During his career in the Army, LeGro served two tours in Vietnam:... (more
    • Link to LeGro Audio Link to LeGro transcript
  • Interview with Gary Noller (16 August 2005)
    • Item #: OH0440
    • Length: 15:11:54 hr/min/sec
    •  (USA) Gary Noller served in the U.S. Army between 1969 and 1971 and was in South Vietnam between June 1970 and April 1971. Gary was an Infantryman with B Co., 1/46, 196th LIB, Americal Division operating in III Corps in and around FSB Mary Ann. (open complete record
    • Link to Noller Audio Link to Noller Transcript
  • Interview with I. Thomas Sheppard (03 October 2005)
    • Item #: OH0444
    • Length: 17:33:51 hr/min/sec
    •  (USA) Tom Sheppard was born in 1930 in Orange NJ and attended the New York State Maritime Academy for two years. He was drafted into the US Army in 1951, completing Basic and AIT training at Fort Dix NJ. He completed Artillery OCS in 1952 and was commissioned as a Regular Army second lieutenant. Tom attended AFFE Intelligence School in Japan, and served with the the 24th Division Artillery in Kore... (more
    • Link to Sheppard Audio Part 1 Link to Sheppard Audio Part 2 Link to Sheppard Audio Part 3 Link to Sheppard Audio Part 4 Link to Sheppard Audio Part 5 Link to Sheppard Audio Part 6 Link to Sheppard Transcript
  • Interview with Edward Nixon (14 November 2005)
    • Item #: OH0534
    • Length: 40:44 min/sec
    •  Edward Nixon (Civilian) is the younger brother of President Richard M. Nixon, whose administration lasted from 1969 to August 1974. Edward Nixon grew up in Whittier, California, and attended Duke University. Trained as a geologist, Edward has had a life-long interest in environmental matters. (open complete record
    • Link to Nixon Audio Link to Nixon Transcript
  • Interview with Barry Zorthian (25 July 2006)
    • Item #: OH0540
    • Length: 11:30:48 hr/min/sec
    •  (AP) Head of Associated Press stationed in Vietnam from 1965 to 1968, Barry Zorthian, discusses some of hie experiences and opinions concerning the Vietnam War. (open complete record
    • Link to Zorthian Transcript Link to Zorthian Audio

Targeting/directing of Bombing Missions

  • Interview with Ken Craig (12 July 2004)
    • Item #: OH0372
    • Length: 7:11:47 hr/min/sec
    •  (USN) Kenneth G. Craig, originally from Seattle, Washington, served in the U.S. Navy from 1961 until 1991 and retired a Captain. Ken graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1961. Upon graduation he served on the USS Richard B. Anderson (DD-786) as an Anti-Submarine Officer until 1963 when he went to pilot training in Pensacola, FL. In 1965 after completing all of his flight training at various ba... (more
    • Link to Craig Audio Part 1 Link to Craig Audio Part 2 Link to Craig Audio Part 3 Link to Craig Audio Part 4 Link to Craig Transcript Part 1 Link to Craig Transcript Part 2 Link to Craig Transcript Part 3 Link to Craig Transcript Part 4
  • Interview with Steve Dant (04 March 2005)
    • Item #: OH0418
    • Length: 8:02:59 hr/min/sec
    •  (USA) Steve Dant, originally from Indianapolis, IN, enlisted in the U.S. Army in 1969 and served until 1971. He was in South Vietnam in 1970 and 1971 and served the first part of his tour with Co. C, 5/46, 198th Light Infantry Brigade, Americal Division as a rifleman and the second part of his tour in Chu Lai with Headquarters Co., 198th LIB, Americal, as a driver for the 198th Brigade S-3. (open complete record
    • Link to Dant Audio Part 1 Link to Dant Audio Part 2 Link to Dant Audio Part 3 Link to Dant Transcript Part 1 Link to Dant Transcript Part 2 Link to Dant Transcript Part 3

McNamara's Line

  • Interview with Pete Lappin (1 September 2000)
    • Item #: OH0018
    • Length: 00:40:06 min/sec
    •  (USAF) Peter Lappin entered the United States Air Force in 1962. As an F-4 pilot he served with the 555th TFS and the 557th TFS. In Vietnam, he served as a FAC with the 23rd TASS as an O-2 pilot. In addition to bringing the first F-4s into Cam Ranh Bay, Lappin also participated in the rescue of STREETCAR 304 and OPERATION IGLOO WHITE. (open complete record
    • Link to Lappin Audio Link to Lappin Transcript
  • Interview with Alexander R. Bolling, Jr. (19 August 2002)
    • Item #: OH0143
    • Length: 1:09:04 hr/min/sec
    •  (USA) Major General Bolling graduated from West Point and was assigned to the 66th Infantry Division as a platoon leader at Ft. Robertson, Arkansas. In 1943 he was reassigned to the 94th Infantry Division to be deployed to England in 1944. In 1945 he was captured by the 11th Panzer Division where he was held for sixty-seven days before escaping. After being rescued he finished serving in World ... (more
    • Link to Bolling Audio Link to Bolling Transcript
  • Interview with Richard Marks (27 August 2002)
    • Item #: OH0146
    • Length: 02:33:28 min/sec
    •  (USAF) Dick Marks served with the United States Air Force as a navigator on C-130 aircraft. He served two TDY (Temporary Duty) tours in 1965 with the 773rd Troop Carrier Squadron (TCS), 463rd Troop Carrier Wing, stationed out of Clark Airbase in the Philippines, flying missions throughout South Vietnam. From February 1966 to February1967, he flew missions throughout South Vietnam while serving wit... (more
    • Link to Marks Audio Link to Marks Transcript
  • Interview with Charles Hubbs
    • Item #: OH0260
    • Length: 02:26:41 min/sec
    •  (USAF) Charles H. Hubbs, originally from New York, New York and Belford, New Jersey, served in the U.S. Air Force from 1950 until 1976. He went to Vietnam in 1966 and served as C Flight Commander in the 12th Special Operations Squadron which later became the 12th Air Commando Squadron based out of Da Nang. Charlie flew 411 combat spray missions as part of Operation RANCH HAND before he complete... (more
    • Link to Hubbs Audio Link to Hubbs Transcript